The Bengal tiger ranks among the biggest wild cats alive today and even considered to belong to the world's charismatic megafauna (with elephants, whales etc).
The Bengal tiger is the subspecies with the largest population of all tigers, most of them in India. It arrived at India 12,000 years ago, and today it is the national animal of both India and Bangladesh present even on coins.
The Bengal tiger's coat is yellow to light orange, with stripes ranging from dark brown to black; the belly and the interior parts of the limbs are white, and the tail is orange with black rings.
Males length: 270 - 310 cm (110 - 120 in)
weigh 180 - 258 kg (397 - 569 lb),
females length: 240 - 265 cm (94 - 104 in)
weigh: 100 - 160 kg (220 - 350 lb).
In northern India and Nepal, the average is larger; males weigh up to 235 kilograms (518 lb), while females average 140 kilograms (310 lb).
Recorded body weights of wild individuals indicate that it is the heaviest subspecies.
The tiger has exceptionally stout teeth.
Its canines are 7.5 to 10 cm (3.0 to 3.9 in) long and thus the longest among all cats.
The image of a tiger's facial marking (Sultan or T72) had been photographed from Ranthambhore Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India on 12.10.2014.
The Bengal tiger leads solitary lives, it's basic social unit is the elemental one of mother and offspring. They like to hunt alone and maintain home ranges. Resident adults of either sex definite area of habitat within which they satisfy their needs, food supply, sufficient water, and shelter.
This location must make it possible for the resident to maintain contact with other tigers, especially those of the opposite sex. Those sharing the same ground are well aware of each other's movements and activities.
The home ranges occupied by adult male residents tend to be mutually exclusive, even though one of these residents may tolerate a transient or sub-adult male at least for a time. A male tiger keeps a large territory in order to include the home ranges of several females within its bounds, so that he may maintain mating rights with them. Spacing among females is less complete. Typically there is partial overlap with neighboring female residents. They tend to have core areas, which are more exclusive, at least for most of the time. Home ranges of both males and females are not stable. The shift or alteration of a home range by one animal is correlated with a shift of another. Shifts from less suitable habitat to better ones are made by animals that are already resident. New animals become residents only as vacancies occur when a former resident moves out or dies. There are more places for resident females than for resident males.
Bengal tigers occasionally hunt and kill predators such as Indian leopard, Indian wolf, Indian jackal, fox, crocodile, Asiatic black bear and sloth bear.
A male and female interact with each other in Karnataka, India
Over the past century, tiger numbers have fallen dramatically, with a decreasing population trend.None of the Tiger Conservation Landscapes within the Bengal tiger range is large enough to support an effective population size of 250 individuals.
evidence showed that humans and tigers cannot co-exist.
The Save the Tiger Fund Council estimates that 7,500 landless people living illegally inside the boundaries of the 386-square-mile (1,000 km2) Nagarhole National Park in southwestern India.
The most significant immediate threat to the existence of wild tiger populations is the illegal trade in poached skins and body parts between India, Nepal, and China. The governments of these countries have failed to implement adequate enforcement response, and wildlife crime remained a low priority in terms of political commitment and investment for years.There are well-organized gangs of professional poachers, who move from place to place and set up camp in vulnerable areas. Skins are rough-cured in the field and handed over to dealers, who send them for further treatment to Indian tanning centers.
Between 1994 and 2009, the Wildlife Protection Society of India has documented 893 cases of tigers killed in India, which is just a fraction of the actual poaching and trade in tiger parts during those years.
In Nepal, the incidence of man-eating tigers has been only sporadic. In Chitwan National Park no cases were recorded before 1980. In the following few years, 13 people have been killed and eaten in the park and its environs. In the majority of cases, man-eating appeared to have been related to an intra-specific competition among male tigers.
In the Himalayan foothills of northern India and southern Nepal, where 11 protected areas.
The goals are to manage tigers as a single metapopulation, the dispersal of which between core refuges can help maintain genetic, demographic, and ecological integrity, and ensure that species and habitat conservation becomes mainstreamed into the rural development agenda. In Nepal, a community-based tourism model has been developed with a strong emphasis on sharing benefits with local people and on the regeneration of degraded forests. The approach has been successful in reducing poaching, restoring habitats, and creating a local constituency for conservation.
WWF partnered with Leonardo DiCaprio to form a global campaign, "Save Tigers Now", with the ambitious goal of building political, financial and public support to double the wild tiger population by 2022.
Save Tigers Now started its campaign in 12 different WWF Tiger priority landscapes, since May 2010.
Tigress with cubs in Kanha Tiger Reserve
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